The Preterist view: They see this passage as a description of the powers of Heaven being greater than the combined forces and associates of evil. The Dragon, Beast of the Sea, and the Beast of the Land try to eliminate the Church but are no match for Christ or we who are in Christ. The primary themes of victory for the faithful and judgment for those who are evil are shown, and when Christians choose to associate themselves with evil and evil’s ways, woe to them! When Christians choose to rebel, there are consequences that are eternal. The Early Church prevailed against the savage assaults from Nero and the Roman Empire. Some see this as a duplicate scene in chapter seven, but with more detail. The song is a song of redemption and only those who are redeemed can sing it. The virginity is not seen as sexual or physical; rather, it is seen as being faithful and refusing to bow to manipulations and temptations from evil. The purpose of the apocalypse is to allow the fruition of faith, the encouragement and growth of the Church, and show that faith, victory, and hope in Christ will prevail against all those who oppose Christ.
The Futurist view: They see this as events taking place as the Great Tribulation as its closes and the Church Millennial Age begins. They see this passage as a glimpse of the conflict of good versus evil and how the Good of Christ prevails. Others in this camp see it as extra information or an index describing an overview of events of the Tribulation. Some see the 144,000 as Jewish believers; others see it as faithful Christians or more informing information to chapter seven. Mount Zion is seen as literal or a synonym for heaven. Virgins and no lie are seen as faithfulness and the willingness to confess and turn from sin, and first fruits as offerings to God. Others see those people who were raptured as the ones who return to earth after the Tribulation.
The Idealist view: They see this as a voice from Heaven, the 144,000 who are the people God has redeemed giving testimony and praise to God. They also see this passage as a duplicate scene found in chapter seven, just adding more details. The rest of the passage deals with the contrast of loyalty and allegiance to the beast or to Christ. Then, new song can only be sung by those whose joy is in the Lord. They see this passage as pastoral, as giving hope and comfort to the struggling early Christians so we today can have patience and endurance.
The Historicist view: They see this passage as the struggle of the Church trying to reform against the evils of the Medieval Catholic Papacy. Even though its early reformers (such as Wycliffe) were killed, the Church still prevailed and their work still lived on for Christ’s glory. Their faith was a song of testimony and faithfulness to countless generations. The images in this passage represent the triumph of the faithful giving eternal glory to God and encouragement to the Church. They see the 144,000 not as an actual number of any particular people being saved, but rather as representative of those whose faith is in Christ. Virgin represents the spiritual decline after the Reformation when the reforming Church was struggling to stay faithful against persecutions and a loss of energy. Others see the new song as the declaration that Christ is our Rightfulness. Virgin is seen as people refining from sexual immorality and being morally pure, which glorifies God.